ESTIMATION OF SULPHATE BY NEPHLOMETRY - Computer Programming

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Friday, April 1, 2011

ESTIMATION OF SULPHATE BY NEPHLOMETRY


ESTIMATION OF SULPHATE BY NEPHLOMETRY
Aim:
To estimate the amount of sulphate ion present in water sample by using Nephlometry.
Principle:
Nephlometry is the measurement of scattered light as a function of concentration of suspended particles (less than, approximately 100mg/liter, high concentrations).
Sulphate ions can be detected by the help of light scattering method which involves precipitation of the ions by barium chloride (BaCl2) to form a stable colloidal solution. The light scattering ability of suspension is highly dependant upon the size of particles. The amount of scattered light absorbed by photocell is directly proportional to the extent of turbidity of a solution which is observed from a digital display which is denoted as nephlometric unit.
The equation used in Nephlometry relating light scattering of a particle at specific angle of observation and concentration of solution. The intensity of transmitted light is expressed using an equation similar to that of Beer – Lambert’s law, i.e,
P =P0e-Tb
Where
P = Power of transmitted beam
P0 = Power of incident beam
T= Turbidity or turbidity Co-efficient
b = Path length
Tb = log
 T’ was found to be proportional to the concentration (c) of suspended particles.
Hence, as T = kc,                      kcb = log
Wavelength:
It is expressed by the following equation.
T = S/ λt

Where
T = Turbidity
S = Constant for a given sample
λ = Wavelength
t = depends on size of particles and is ‘4’ when particle size is smaller than wavelength.
Chemicals and Equipments required:
Solution A- Hydrazine Sulphate (5gm in 400ml of distilled water)
Solution B- Hexamethylene tetramine (5gm in 400ml of distilled water)
Solution A and B were mixed and made up to 1000ml by distilled water and stored. 
Working standard – 10ml of the stock was made up to 100ml by distilled water.
Test solution:
A.    Sodium Sulphate (0.01M) ( 0.142gm/100ml)
B.     Barium Chloride (0.01M) (0.244gm/100ml)
Apparatus:
1.      Nephlo – Turbidimeter
2.      Glass cuvettes
Procedure:
1.      The solution A and B was mixed and made up to 1000ml by distilled water and allowed to settle for 48 hrs at room temperature to get 4000NTU.
2.      Nephlometer was calibrated with formazine (Solution A + B).
3.      5ml of Sulphate solution was pipetted out into a series
4.      A graph was plotted i.e., turbidence against volume of BaCl2. From the graph the equivalent point was calculated.
Result:
The amount of sulphate ion in the given sample was………..



Calculations:
Volume of Sulphate sample V1 =
Strength of Sulphate sample N1 =?
Volume of BaCl2 V2 =
Strength of BaCl2 N2 =
V1N1=V2N2
N1=

Weight of Sulphate in 1L = N1 X Eq. Wt of SO42-
Amount of SO42- ion present in 100ml of sample =………
Amount of Sulphate present in 1000ml of sample =………..mg/dl
S. No
Volume of Sodium Sulphate(ml)
Volume of BaCl2
Turbidence
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